The Semitic and Greek worlds fused into the Christian thought and culture. It made Christianity the predominant religion of the West for two millennia. However, the predominantly literate Christianity could not make much in-road into the Asia and Africa which are predominantly oral in culture. In the West itself, the emergence of audio-visual-textual communication of the digital culture is challenging the predominantly rational and printed-text based Christian faith and practice. Theology is in birth pains for a smooth transition from a print-text based medieval-modern theology to digital culture existence.

Published in : “What has Communications to do with Theology. Theological Implications of the Information and Communication Technology” in Asian Horizons, Dharmaram Journal of Theology, Vol. 5/3, 2011, 458-471.


The interrelationship between theology and communications need to be explored in detail. It requires placing theology and communication face-to-face. This article on ‘Interfaces between theology  and communication’ is, thus, a search for common areas between theologising and communication when the two are placed face to face with each other in a transparent fashion. Interface means the point of interaction or communication between two entities, groups or subjects. An honest investigation necessitates that we look at theology and communication  from both sides before we go to conclusions. However, being theologians and church communicators we will lay more stress on the implications of the communication revolution for theology and examine how communication insights can significantly challenge theologising.

(originally published : “Interfaces between Theology and Communications” in Michael Traber (ed.), Communication in Theological Education. New Directions, ISPCK, Delhi, 2005, 38-60.)

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T U W X Y Z    
Access time- The performance of a hard drive or other storage device - how long it takes to locate a file.
Action The word the director uses when he wants the actors to begin performing.
Action/Adventure A ganre In Hollywood movies. Opens with exciting action sequence followed by some explosion.
Active program or window - The application or window at the front (foreground) on the monitor.
Actor's call our call to the set. You will be called at least an hour before the assistant director thinks you will be needed—be sure to show up at least a half hour before that. This will help you become accustomed to the set, the props, and the atmosphere. Never be late; the cost of a crew waiting for you is enormous.
Alert (alert box) - a message that appears on screen, usually to tell you something went wrong. <
Alias - an icon that points to a file, folder or application (System 7).
Apple menu - on the left side of the screen header. System 6 = desk accessories System 7 = up to 50 items. Application - a program in which you do your work.
Application menu - on the right side of the screen header. Lists running applications.
ASCII (pronounced ask-key ) - American Standard Code for Information Interchange. a commonly used data format for exchanging information between computers or programs.
Assistant director keeps order on the set and makes sure the production moves according to schedule. Normally hired by the producer, the assistant director aids the director but also watches over the production company's investment. Sometimes this involves prodding the director to finish the shots planned for a particular day, or hunting down actors if they are not where they should be on the set. The assistant director also functions as a record keeper and handles time cards and minor union disputes.

Background - part of the multitasking capability. A program can run and perform tasks in thebackground while another program is being used in the            foreground.  Backup - a copy of a file or disk you make for archiving purposes. Big Close-up - (abbr. BCU) a shot taken very close to the subject (closer than would be necessary for             a close-up), revealing extreme detail.
(i.e., part of the human face) Bit - the smallest piece of information used by the computer. Derived from "binary digit". In computer             language, either a one (1) or a zero (0). Boot - to start up a computer. Bridging shot - a shot (cut) used to cover a break in time, or other break in continuity. Bug - a programming error that causes a program to behave in an unexpected way.  Bus - an electronic pathway through which data is transmitted between components in a computer. Byte - a piece of computer information made up of eight bits.  
Card - a printed circuit board that adds some feature to a computer.
Cartridge drive - a storage device, like a hard drive, in which the medium is a cartridge that can be removed.
CD-ROM - an acronym for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory.
Cheating When an actor takes on a physical position that would not be natural in real life, such as looking at something other than the person or object on which she is supposedly focused. This is often necessary to get the right effect or perspective on film.
Chooser - A desk accessory used to select a printer, or other external device, or to log onto a network.
Cinematographer (or director of photography) is responsible for the lighting, choice of film, correct exposure, correct use of lenses, and supervision of the camera crew.
Clapper - the sticks that are slapped together in view of the camera for the purpose of synchronizing film sound. These are usually, but not always, attached to the slate and appear at the head or tail of a sync sound take.
Clipboard - A portion of memory where the Mac temporarily stores information. Called a Copy Buffer in many PC applications because it is used to hold information which is to be moved, as in word processing where text is "cut" and then "pasted".
Clock Rate (MHz) - The instruction processing speed of a computer measured in millions of cycles per second (i.e., 200 MHz).
Close-up - (abbr. CU) a shot taken very close to the subject ( or with the subject of the shot very large in the frame), revealing a detail only. (i.e., the human face, or hands).
Close-up Positioning the camera close to an actor's face (or any object that is significant in the scene) so that the person or object fills the frame.
Coding - once the workprint and sound stock (mag) have been placed in sync, the rolls are coded with matching yellow edge numbers so they can be matched up later once they have been cut up into pieces.
Command - the act of giving an instruction to your Mac either by menu choice or keystroke.
Command (apple) key - a modifier key, the Command key used in conjunction with another keystroke to active some function on the Mac.
Compiler - a program the converts programming code into a form that can be used by a computer.
Compression - a technique that reduces the size of a saved file by elimination or encoding redundancies (i.e., JPEG, MPEG, LZW, etc.)
Conforming - the cutting of the OCN to match the final cut of a film.
Contact print - a print made in a contact printer where the original element and duplicate element actually are pressed together at the point of expose (no lens involved). Workprints and "dirty dupes" are made this way.
Continuity of motion - the flow of action from one shot to the next as it is placed on the screen at the cut point. Placing the significant action at the end of a shot in the same area of the screen where the significant action will begin in the next shot.
Control key - seldom used modifier key on the Mac. Control panel - a program that allows you to change settings in a program or change the way a Mac looks and/or behaves. CPU - the Central Processing Unit. The processing chip that is the "brains" of a computer.  Crash - a system malfunction in which the computer stops working and has to be restarted. Cross-cut - the intercutting of shots from two or more scenes so the fragments of each scene will be presented to the viewers attention alternately. - see parallel action Cursor - The pointer, usually arrow or cross shaped, which is controlled by the mouse. Cut - in editing, a single unbroken strip of film  Cut The director's instruction to stop a scene. The director is the only person on the set allowed to "cut," or stop, a scene. If the assistant director, sound mixer, or camera operator needs to stop the scene for any reason, they call out "break it."
Daisy chaining - the act of stringing devices together in a series (such as SCSI). Data - (the plural of datum) information processed by a computer. Database - an electronic list of information that can be sorted and/or searched. Defragment - (also - optimize) to concatenate fragments of data into contiguous blocks in memory or on a hard drive. Desktop - 1. the finder. 2. the shaded or colored backdrop of the screen.  Desktop file - an invisible file in which the Finder stores a database of information about files and icons.  Detective/mystery A ganre In Hollywood movies. The murder mystery opens with a murder. A police officer, private detective, or a retaired novelist solves the case. Since solving the case is primaryily a mental exercise there si often a voice over narration. So we can privy to the central character’s thought. Eg. Magnum Dialog box - an on-screen message box that appears when the Mac requires additional information before completing a command.  Digitize - to convert linear, or analog, data into digital data which can be used by the computer. Disk - a spinning platter made of magnetic or optically etched material on which data can be stored.  Disk drive - the machinery that writes the data from a disk and/or writes data to a disk.  Disk window - the window that displays the contents or directory of a disk.  Dissolve - a gradual merging of the end of one shot and beginning of another produced by the superimposition of a fade-out onto a fade-in of equal length. Document - a file you create, as opposed to the application which created it. Dolly shot - a shot taken while the camera is in motion on a dolly. DOS - acronym for Disk Operating System - used in IBM PCs. Download - to transfer data from one computer to another. (If you are on the receiving end, you are downloading. If you are on the sending end, you are uploading ). DPI - acronym for Dots Per Inch - a gauge of visual clarity on the printed page or on the computer screen. Drag - to move the mouse while its button is being depressed. Drag and drop - a feature on the Mac which allows one to drag the icon for a document on top of the icon for an application, thereby launching the application and opening the document. Driver - a file on a computer which tells it how to communicate with an add-on piece of equipment (like a printer). Dupe negative - a negative element printed from a positive print (an inter-positive). Release prints are printed from a dupe negative.  
    E Establishing shot - a shot used near the beginning of a scene to establish the inter-relationship of details to be shown subsequently in closer shots. Ethernet - a protocol for fast communication and file transfer across a network. Expansion slot - a connector inside the computer which allows one to plug in a printed circuit board that provides new or enhanced features. Extension - a startup program that runs when you start the Mac and then enhances its function.
  F Fade-in - 1.(n.) a shot which begins in total darkness and gradually lightens to full brightness. 2. (v.) To gradually bring sound from inaudibility to required volume. Fade-out - the opposite of a fade-in. Fibre channel - as applied to data storage and network topology , link to File - the generic word for an application, document, control panel or other computer data. Film Noir (= Night Film) Describes both a ganre and a shooting style. Shadowy, cynical and realistic – and a story line that features ordinary people in over their heads, no heroes villains per se. Generally a struggle between good and evil withing the central charater often ending unhappily. Eg:- Touch OF the Evil, L. A. Confidential Finder - The cornerstone or home-base application in the Mac environment. The finder regulates the file management functions of the Mac (copying, renaming, deleting...) Fish out Of Water Creates so much potential for fun and conflict. A character is abruptly taken out od her element and forced to adjust to a new environment. Eg. Kindergarten Cop, Three men and a Baby Floppy - a 3.5 inch square rigid disk which holds data. (so named for the earlier 5.25 and 8 inch disks that were flexible). Folder - an electronic subdirectory which contains files. Font - a typeface that contains the characters of an alphabet or some other letterforms. Footprint - The surface area of a desk or table which is occupied by a piece of equipment. Fragmentation - The breaking up of a file into many separate locations in memory or on a disk. Freeze - a system error which causes the cursor to lock in place.
  G Gaffer is responsible for making sure all the lighting equipment is where it should be and operating correctly. The gaffer sets the lights so that the finished picture will have the desired effect. Get info - a Finder File menu command that presents an information window for a selected file icon. Gig - a gigabyte = 1024 megabytes.
  H Hard drive - a large capacity storage device made of multiple disks housed in a rigid case. Head crash - a hard disk crash caused by the heads coming in contact with the spinning disk(s).  High density disk - a 1.4 MB floppy disk. Highlight - to select by clicking once on an icon or by highlighting text in a document. Hit your mark The ability to find your predetermined location in the scene without looking at the marks that have been placed on the floor. Horror A ganre In Hollywood movies. Scarry movies differing from thriller in that the opposition is a monster or monster-like human. This ganre lives heavily on shock and surprise. Eg:- Jaws, Screem
  I Icon - a graphic symbol for an application, file or folder. Initialize - to format a disk for use in the computer; creates a new directory and arranges the tracks for the recording of data. Insertion point - in word processing, the short flashing marker which indicates where your next typing will begin. Installer - software used to install a program on your hard drive.  Inter-positive print (IP) - a fine grain print made from the conformed original negative which retains the orange cast of the OCN. The IP is used to produce subsequent dupe negatives. Interrupt button - a tool used by programmers to enter the debugging mode. The button is usually next to the reset button.
  J K Jump cut - A cut which breaks the continuity of time by jumping forward from one part of an action to another. K - short for kilobyte. Key grip is responsible for the rigging (carpentry) and for moving and readying the sets and camera dollies. Keyboard shortcut - a combination of keystrokes that performs some function otherwise found in a pulldown menu. Key Kode - an extension of the latent edge numbers whereby each frame is given a number. These numbers are recorded as a barcode on the negative and can be read by a special reader in the lab or transfer house. Kilobyte - 1024 bytes.
  L Lab roll - rolls of OCN compiled by the lab for printing which may consist of several camera rolls. Landscape - in printing from a computer, to print sideways on the page. Latent edge numbers - numbers that are printed onto the edge of the negative by the manufacturer. These numbers print through onto the workprint and are used by the negative matchers (conformers) to match the OCN to the final cut of the picture. Launch - start an application. Legal effects - the lengths for fades and dissolves which can be executed by most printers (16, 24, 32, 48, 64 and 96 frames). Library shot - a shot used in a film, but not originally taken for that film. Long shot (abbr. LS) - a shot taken from a considerable distance. Often the LS serves as an establishing shot. (i.e., a human figure taken so it is shorter than the height of the screen) Long shot A camera angle used to stress the environment or setting; the camera is at a distance from the subject of the shot. Love stories A ganre In Hollywood movies. Lovers meet (catalyst) forced/choose to be together (big event) Fall in love (pinch) separated (crisis) Change/return/reform (showdown) Low-Con print - a print that is made on a print stock which has been flashed evenly white light prior to the image being exposed on it. This yields a lower contrast print (brings up the black levels) which in turn yields a more attractive video transfer.
  M Mag stock - magnetic sound recording stock which has edge perforations that match those perfs. on the picture stock, thereby allowing it to be pulled along with the picture at the same speed and relative position. Make up person is responsible for all makeup.  Married print - a positive print which carries both picture and sound on it. (sometimes called a composite print). Master shot - a shot which covers an entire piece of dramatic action (usually a long shot, or wide shot). MB - short for megabyte. Medium close-up (abbr. MCU) - a shot between a MS and a CU. (i.e., a human figure taken from the chest up) Medium shot (abbr. MS) - a shot between a LS and a MCU (i.e.,. a human figure taken from the waist up) Medium shot A camera position that results in full- to half-figure shots of performers. Megabyte - 1024 kilobytes. Memory - the temporary holding area where data is stored while it is being used or changed; the amount of RAM a computer has installed. Menu - a list of program commands listed by topic. Menu bar - the horizontal bar across the top of the Mac¹s screen that lists the menus. Mixer is responsible recording the sound. Other sounds are added during post-production by foley artists. Montage - 1) the juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated shots or scenes which, when combined, achieve meaning (as in, shot A and shot B together give rise to an third idea, which is then supported by shot C, and so on), or 2) a series of related shots which lead the viewer to a desired conclusion (as in, shot A leads to shot B leads to shot C... leads to shot X; shot X being the outcome of the sequence). Multi finder - a component of System 6 that allows the Mac to multi task. Multi tasking - running more than one application in memory at the same time. Mute print - a positive print which carries the picture only (silent print).
  N Nanosecond - one billionth of a second. ( or, the time between the theatrical release of a Dudley Moore film and the moment it begins to play on airplanes). Native mode - using the computers original operating system; most commonly used when talking about the PowerPC can run software written for either the 80x0 systems, or the PowerPC¹s RISC code. NuBus - expansion slots on the Mac which accept intelligent, self-configuring boards. NuBus is a different bus achitecture than the newer PCI bus and the boards are not interchangable.
  O Operating system - the system software that controls the computer.  Optical - any device carried out by the optical department of a lab using an optical printer. (i.e.,. dissolves, wipes, double exposure effects). Optical disk - a high-capacity storage medium that is read by a laser light.  Optical printer - used in printing the image from one piece of film onto another by means of a lens. Original camera negative (OCN) - the negative film originally passed through the camera.
  P Q Palette - a small floating window that contains tools used in a given application. Pan - to rotate the camera about on its vertical axis. Parallel action - a device of narrative construction in which the development of two pieces of action are presented simultaneously. Partition - a subdivision of a hard drives surface that is defined and used as a separate drive. Paste - to insert text, or other material, from the clipboard or copy buffer.  PC - acronym for personal computer, commonly used to refer to an IBM or IBM clone computer which uses DOS. PCI - acronym for Peripheral Component Interchange - the newer, faster bus achitecture.  Peripheral - an add-on component to your computer. Pickup The director uses this term to indicate that he or she wants to redo a small part of the scene. For example, if a scene is going well until someone forgets a line, the director might want to pick up the scene near that point to avoid reshooting the entire scene.  Pitch (film stock) - the spacing between perforations. Point - (1/72") 12 points = one pica in printing. Pop-up menu - any menu that does not appear at the top of the screen in the menu bar. (may pop up or down) Port - a connection socket, or jack on the Mac. Power Mac - a family of Macs built around the PowerPC chip.  Power PC - a processing chip designed by Apple, IBM and Motorola (RISC based). Print it What the director says when the take completed is good enough to use. A film print is made of the take. Print spooler - a program that stores documents to be printed on the hard drive, thereby freeing the memory up and allowing other functions to be performed while printing goes on in the background. Property master ensures the sets and actors have all the necessary dressing and props. QuickTime - the Apple system extension that gives one the ability to compress, edit and play animation, movies and sound on the Mac
  R RAM - acronym for Random-Access Memory.  Relational editing - editing of shots to suggest association of ideas between them. Reset switch - a switch on the Mac that restarts the computer in the event of a crash or freeze.  Resize box - the small square at the lower right corner of a window which, when dragged, resizes the window. RISC - acronym for Reduced Instruction Set Computing; the smaller set of commands used by the PowerPC and Power Mac. ROM - acronym for Read Only Memory; memory that can only be read from and not written to.
Root directory - the main hard drive window.
Rough cut - first assembly of a film which the editor prepares from selected takes, in script order, leaving the finer points of timing and editing to a later stage. Rule of 30 Degree - A rule applied in the name of continuity, which stipulated that, when there is a cut to another camera position, the camera should be at least 30 degrees from the previous one. If this rule is not observed and two sots are cut together without the camera having moved more than thirty degrees the effect on the spectator is of jolt as it camera as jumped a bit. The result is a noticeable jump what is termed as a jump cut. The 30 degree rule serves to create an undisturbed seamlessness in the film because such a shift does not draw attention to itself and is logically motivated within the narrative  Rushes - prints made immediately after a day's shooting so they can be viewed the following day. (a.k.a. dailies)
  Save - to write a file onto a disk. Save as - (a File menu item) to save a previously saved file in a new location and/or with a new name.  Scene - action that occurs in one location at one time.  Science Fiction A ganre In Hollywood movies. Story based on science. Very often science fiction takes horror or action in it. Eg- Aliens, Back To The Future. Scroll - to shift the contents of a window to bring hidden items into view. Scroll bar - a bar at the bottom or right side of a window that contains the scroll box and allows scrolling. Scroll box - the box in a scroll bar that is used to navigate through a window. SCSI - acronym for Small Computer System Interface.   SCSI address - a number between zero and seven that must be unique to each device in a SCSI chain. Fast and Wide SCSI devices will allow up to 15 SCSI Ids (hexidecimal); however, the length restriction (3 meters) is such that it is virtually impossible to link 15 devices together. SCSI port - a 25 pin connector on the back of a Mac (native SCSI port); used to connect SCSI devices to the CPU. Some SCSI cards (like the ATTO) have a 68 pin connector.   SCSI terminator - a device placed at the end of a SCSI chain to complete the circuit. (some SCSI devices are self-terminating, or have active termination and do not require this plug). Sequence - a series of shots or scenes which has a beginning, middle and end (like a chapter in a book). Serial port - a port that allows data to be transmitted in a series (one after the other), such as the printer and modem ports on a Mac. Server - a central computer dedicated to sending and receiving data from other computers (on a network). Set dresser decorates the set. Setup The camera position or the composition of a shot. Each time one of these is changed, there is a new setup.   Shot - a recording of a single take.   Shut down - the command from the Special menu that shuts down the Mac safely.   Slate - a board upon which key information about a shot is displayed (i.e.,. scene and take numbers, title of the show, whether it is day or night, sync or MOS...). This board is held in view of the camera either at the head or tail of a shot to identify it to the lab and to the editor. If it appears at the tail of a shot, it will be held upside-down.   SMPTE leader - a leader placed at the head of release prints containing information for the projectionist and featuring numbers which are black on a medium density background. These numbers count down from 8 to 2 at 24 frame intervals ending at the first frame of the "2" followed by 47 frames of black. Software - files on disk that contain instructions for a computer.   Speed A term used to let the production crew know that the camera is rolling or the sound is being recorded. Spreadsheet - a program designed to look like an electronic ledger. Start up disk - the disk containing system software and is designated to be used to start the computer. Surge suppressor - a power strip that has circuits designed to reduce the effects of surge in electrical power. (not the same as a UPS)   Sync pop - a single frame tone placed on the sound track so as to correspond with the "2" frame on the SMPTE leader. Synchronize (sync) - to place sound and picture in their proper relationship.   System file - a file in the System folder that allows your Mac to start and run. System folder - an all-important folder that contains at least the System file and the Finder.

   T Take - a recording of a single shot. A scene that is being (or has been) filmed. It is not a rehearsal and there will be a film record of it.  That's a wrap A phrase that means, "We're done. Shooting is over for today."  Thirty Two bit addressing - a feature that allows the Mac to recognize and use more than 8MB of memory.   Thriller A ganre In Hollywood movies. Focuses more on suspense. Ordinary men or women gets involved in a situation that becomes life threatening. Eg:- North By North West  Tilt - to turn or rotate the camera up or down in shooting.   Timing - the process of adjusting the color balance for the printing of each scene once the negative has been conformed. (also called grading) Title bar - the horizontal bar at the top of a window which has the name of the file or folder it represents. Travelling Angel A ganre In Hollywood movies. A character who solves the problems of the people around him. He doesn’t grow much as he is ‘perfect’ but other characters do. And once they do, the angel rides off into sunset. Eg. The Spitfire Girl, The Bishops Wife.

   U Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS)- a constantly charging battery pack which powers the computer. A UPS should have enough charge to power your computer for several minutes in the event of a total power failure, giving you time to save your work and safely shut down.   Upload - to send a file from one computer to another through a network. UPS - acronym for Uninterruptible Power Source.

   V Vaporware - "software" advertised, and sometimes sold, that does not yet exist in a releasable for.  Virtual memory - using part of your hard drive as though it were "RAM".

   W X Y Z Wardrobe master is responsible for all wardrobe needs. WORM - acronym for Write Once-Read Many; an optical disk that can only be written to once (like a CD-ROM).  Zoom box - a small square in the upper right corner of a window which, when clicked, will expand the window to fill the whole screen.

There are the oppressed
and there are the oppressors
Unjust structures made by man.
Some get rich at the cost of the poor some get fat from the perspiration of the weak.

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